This edition of the Census is the first produced since the retirement of former Government Botanist, Jim Ross in 2005. It retains the basic format established in the first edition of the Census (Forbes et al., 1984) and subsequently refined, largely by Jim until the most recent (seventh) edition (Ross & Walsh, 2003). This edition of the Census lists the scientific names of the native and naturalised vascular plants known to occur or to have occurred in Victoria as at the end of May 2007. Each scientific name is accompanied by its author(s) and reference to its place of original publication. The conservation status of those taxa considered to be rare or threatened is provided and those plants of exogenous or uncertain origin are indicated.


The advent of DNA sequencing has facilitated access to genetic codes that are providing valuable insights into evolutionary relationships (phylogeny). Numerous studies have been, and are still being, conducted as part of a world-wide endeavour to understand the phylogeny of land plants. During the last decade the position of most angiosperms has been revealed in increasing detail (e.g. APG, 1998, 2003; Stevens, 2001). These numerous molecular studies have re-defined the relationships amongst many plant taxa and resulted in the classification systems used for flowering plants prior to the late 1970s becoming progressively outdated. Many familiar families are known now to be unnatural groupings. Consequently, some families have been re-circumscribed, some families have disappeared and been subsumed in others, and yet others have been fragmented and many of the genera dispersed among a number of other families. For example, the family Asclepiadaceae is now included in Apocynaceae (Endress and Bruyns, 2000), Epacridaceae in Ericaceae (Kron et al., 2002), and many of the genera of Scrophulariaceae dispersed among other families, in particular, those that form parasitic relationships with roots of other plants (e.g. Euphrasia, Parentucellia) now being referred to the Orobanchaceae (Olmstead et al., 2001; Olmstead, 2002). Further general information about the changes are discussed briefly by Hill and Preston (2002) and Dean (2002).


Although we are aware of these developments and changes, they have not been incorporated into this edition of the Census. One of the functions of the Census is to serve as a curatorial tool for staff managing the collections housed in the National Herbarium of Victoria. Concentration in recent years on the databasing of the Herbarium's collection for inclusion in Australia's Virtual Herbarium ( project has meant that the collections have remained in the system of Cronquist (1981), now understood to have been superseded by studies such as those outlined above. Like its predecessors, this edition of the Census retains Cronquist's families for the Angiosperms. The classification of ferns, fern allies and conifers is the same as that used in volume 48 of the Flora of Australia.


The systematic listing follows the arrangement of the vascular plant collections in the National Herbarium of Victoria which is in four sections, namely, Pteridophytes (ferns and fern allies), Gymnosperms, Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons. Within each of these sections in the Census, families are listed alphabetically, genera alphabetically within families, and species alphabetically within genera. An alphabetical listing of the entire Census follows the systematic listing. Currently accepted names appear in Times Roman bold print. Names of synonyms or misapplied names appear in italics.


Author abbreviations follow ‘Authors of Plant Names' (Brummitt and Powell, 1992) and subsequent amendments (e.g. International Plant Names Index; Journal titles are abbreviated in accordance with BPH-2 (Bridson, 2004; Lawrence et al., 1968), and other literature in accordance with Stafleu and Cowan (1976-88) and Stafleu and Mennega (1992) except that upper case initials have been used for the initial letter of each word.


All records are based on herbarium specimens. Most of the specimens are housed in the National Herbarium of Victoria but records known to be substantiated by specimens in other herbaria are also included.


Undescribed taxa, well known to herbarium or field workers, are included in the Census as phrase names (i.e. informal names). Some of these taxa are referred to in literature in which case reference is given to the relevant publication. Where the taxa are not recorded in literature a reference is usually given either to their affinities or to their general distribution in Victoria or sometimes to both. Manuscript names are not used in order to obviate any confusion should they be changed, their publication be long-delayed, or not eventuate.


In the case of undescribed taxa, if it is clear that the taxon merits specific rank the entry is given, for example, as Pelargonium sp. 1 sensu Fl. Victoria 4:238 (1999). In cases where the taxonomic rank is unresolved and there is a possibility that the taxon ultimately will be given a rank below that of species, the entry is given, for example, as Eucalyptus aff. aromaphloia (Lerderderg).


This format for listing undescribed taxa is not in agreement with a number of recently adopted conventions and suggested conventions (e.g. Barker, 2005). While we support the need for a uniform national approach for citing phrase names, the current circumscription and knowledge of distribution for these taxa is not yet complete enough to ensure that the same name can be indisputably applied to the same taxon across state and territory boundaries. The development of a protocol for citing unnamed taxa for inclusion in the Australian Plant Census ( will, in time, ensure that informally known taxa may be recognised uniformly across their ranges. As a consequence the phrase names for some taxa listed on the Australian Plant Census website will be different from those used here, for example Cardamine. aff. flexuosa sensu Fl. Victoria Vol 3:435-436 (1996) is known as Cardamine sp. Jandakot (P. Luff s.n. 4/7/1969) WA Herbarium in the Australian Plant Census (APC). While it is regrettable that more than one phrase name is available for the same taxon, we have decided to defer adopting the APC phrase names until the completion of the APC project, in order to deliver a consistent account of all taxonomic groups.


The taxonomy of certain groups is fairly fluid. Usually this is because work in progress has not reached the stage where clarity has been reached, or it is a reflection of the divergent opinions of different researchers who work on the same group. It is always difficult to accommodate differing taxonomic concepts for the same group, but decisions have had to be taken about which names will be accepted in the Census. Acceptance of certain names does not imply that alternative names are incorrect or that they are unsupported scientifically. Alternative names are synonymised. Reaching a consensus on which names to accept for the orchids continues to be a particular problem where taxonomists with differing, but valid, views of genus circumscription continue to describe taxa in differently named, but synonymous genera. In these situations we have been guided by the recommended nomenclatures provided in the aforementioned Australian Plant Census.


As in the previous edition, following the completion of the Flora of Victoria (Walsh and Entwisle 1994, 1996, 1999), the Flora is now taken as the reference point rather than Willis (1970, 1973). In order to identify the changes in nomenclature and new records in the Census, the symbol ‘♦' precedes new records and changes in nomenclature that are subsequent to the Flora of Victoria.



Origin status of Victorian vascular plants


Pysek et al. (2004) used the term ‘origin status' to differentiate between ‘native' (= ‘indigenous') and ‘alien' plant taxa (= ‘exotic', ‘introduced', ‘non-native', ‘non-indigenous'). They defined ‘indigenous' plants as ‘taxa that have originated in a given area without human involvement or that have arrived there without intentional or unintentional intervention of humans from an area in which they are native'. They define ‘alien' plants as those ‘plant taxa in a given area whose presence there is due to intentional or unintentional human involvement, or which have arrived there without the help of people from an area in which they are alien'. Bean (2007) proposed a system of assessment using a combination of ecological, phytogeographical and historical criteria for the determination of the origin status of an individual species in Australia. These factors are often used informally when determinations of origin status are made, but appear not to have been combined previously into a unified system for Australia. We have attempted to synthesise the approaches of both Pysek et al. (2004) and Bean (2007) in our assessment of origin status in this census. The origin status of a species is important in species conservation and vegetation management, biological weed control, floristic evaluation and biogeographical analysis.


One of the complicating factors in formulating these definitions as Bean (2007) pointed out is that an increasing number of Australian plant species are present as both indigenous and naturalised populations. In this edition 125 Australian taxa (of which 77 are non-Victoria) are either naturalised or incipiently naturalised in Victoria. Of these Acacia constitutes the greatest proportion with 24 taxa (14 of which are non-Victorian), 46 taxa are from the Myrtaceae (35 of which are non-Victorian), and 15 taxa are from the Proteaceae (11 of which are non Victorian, and 2 cultivars). Most of these taxa originate as horticultural escapees and from, perhaps well-intentioned but ill-advised ‘revegetation' schemes. Inappropriate selection of species that are not indigenous to an area intended for revegetation not only results in a potential weed threat, but also, over time, obscures the known natural distributional ranges of native taxa.


With the exception of native species which lack a prefix, the various categories are differentiated by the use of the following prefixes:


*indicates that the taxon has become naturalised in Victoria. In early editions of the Census and accounts of the State's flora (e.g. Mueller, 1862; Ewart, 1931; Willis, 1970, 1973), an alien taxon that had spread ‘beyond the possibility of extirpation' (Mueller, 1853) was considered naturalised. As the interest in and knowledge of the alien flora has burgeoned in recent years, we have endeavoured to adopt a more precise definition. In more recent editions of the Census, the criterion of Tutin et al. (1964) was used whereby naturalised taxa needed to have been established for at least 25 years, unless obvious seedling recruitment was taking place and the population was persisting or spreading.


The term ‘naturalised' has been variably defined and used in the botanical literature. Richardson et al. (2000) defined naturalised plants as ‘alien plants that reproduce consistently (cf. casual alien plants) and sustain populations over many life cycles without direct intervention by humans (or in spite of human intervention); they often recruit offspring freely, usually close to adult plants, and do not necessarily invade natural, seminatural or human-made ecosystems'. There are a number of questions raised by this definition. For example, what constitutes reproduction? Is reproduction sexual and vegetative, or just sexual? Many serious weeds spread almost or entirely by vegetative means (e.g. Pennisetum clandestinum). Another question raised is ‘what is a life cycle?' Is it a complete ‘cradle to grave' cycle or just the time required to reach reproductive maturity? These are very different timeframes when considering an annual or a long-lived perennial. Hosking et al. (2003) considered naturalised plants as being ‘those non-native species which are reproducing (sexually or vegetatively) in the wild for at least one generation'. Pysek et al (2004) defined naturalised plants as those that ‘sustain self-replacing populations for at least 10 years without direct intervention by people, (or in spite of human intervention) by recruitment from seed or ramets (tillers, tubers, bulbs, fragments, etc.) capable of independent growth'. How long, or for how many generations, a species must persist to be considered naturalised is inevitably arbitrary.


We have drawn heavily on the definition of Pysek et al. (2004) but have avoided attaching time frames. Our definition of naturalised plants is: ‘those alien plants that sustain self-replacing populations without direct intervention by people OR in spite of human intervention, by recruitment from seeds or vegetative propagules (e.g. the bulbils of many exotic Oxalis species) or by vegetative spread (e.g. the extensive rhizome system of Spartina × townsendii)'.


Casuals (not persisting without fresh introduction) are not included in this category (definition after Kloot, 1987).


#indicates that the taxon is both indigenous and naturalised, or both indigenous and incipiently naturalised (see below) in Victoria. In other words, a native taxon that has extended its geographical range of distribution beyond its known or suspected original distributional range in Victoria. Formatting restrictions do not allow those taxa that are both indigenous and incipiently (rather than fully) naturalised in Victoria to be differentiated so both are included in this category. This is regrettable, but the number of taxa involved is few (e.g. Grevillea parvula, Syzigium smithii).


incipientindicates that the taxon is incipiently naturalised in Victoria. By this is meant that the taxon is known to be not indigenous in Victoria and represented by one or more populations but the extent of naturalisation is uncertain and there is doubt whether it has become truly naturalised (as defined above) yet. Taxa in this category demonstrate the potential to become truly naturalised.


uncertainindicates that the origin status of the taxon in Victoria is uncertain. It is uncertain whether all of the populations of the taxon are truly native in Victoria, whether all of the populations are introduced, or whether some of the populations are truly native and some are introduced. In the latter case, in some instances it may well be that the taxonomy of the group is unresolved and that what is treated currently as a single taxon actually represents more than one taxon and that these taxa include both truly native and introduced elements.


endemicindicates a taxon that is endemic to Victoria, i.e. that it does not occur naturally outside the State.


Post Flora of Victoriaindicates a new record for Victoria or a change in nomenclature since the publication of the taxonomic volumes of the Flora of Victoria (1994, 1996, 1999). Names mentioned in the ‘Additions and Corrections to Volumes 2 and 3' published in volume 4 of the Flora are not designated with the symbol.


hybridindicates that the taxon is of hybrid origin. The recognition of unnamed hybrid combinations and formally named hybrids in previous editions of the Census has been inconsistently applied (hybrid combinations recognised for some groups but not for others, and incomplete listing of formally named hybrids). In an endeavour to remedy the inconsistencies in previous editions, we have removed many of the unnamed combinations, and have usually  restricted the listing to only formally named hybrids (e.g. Eucalyptus x studleyensis, Rubus x novus,  x Calassodia tutelata), except for those hybrids where one or neither of the putative parents occurs in Victoria (e.g. Ludwigia arcuata x L. repens), or phrase name taxa such as Kunzea sp, 1 sensu Fl Victoria 3:1022 (1996), which is now believed to represent a hybrid swarm between Kunzea peduncularis and K. phylicoides


aintroduced taxa previously recorded from Victoria that either have not been recorded since 1950, or have not been found more recently despite thorough searching specifically for the taxon at all known sites. Such taxa may have disappeared through natural processes or through eradication programmes. It should be pointed out that very few active searches are conducted for introduced taxa that are presumed to have become extinct, and as such the absence of herbarium specimens or reports may be a reflection of a lack of searching rather than extinction. Prior to the 7th (2003) edition of the Census, records of ‘extinct aliens' had previously not been included, but we consider it beneficial to reflect some historical record of those taxa so that targeted searches for them may be encouraged or the names provided may suggest an identity for ‘new' discoveries of currently unknown aliens.


We accept that these categories may at sometimes appear imprecise, and that different observers may have different views of the status of plants occurring in the wild. The categories here are offered as a considered view of the authors at the time of writing, relying on published accounts and opinions of colleagues.




Number of species (% of taxa) 8th edn

Number of taxa (% of taxa) 8th edn

Number of species (% of taxa)7th edn

Number of taxa (% of taxa) 7th edn







1237 (25.9%)

1282 (24.7%)

1158 (25.1%)

1191 (24.3%)


211 (4.3%)

214 (4.1%)

145 (3.1%)

147 (3.0%)


47 (1.0%)

50 (1.0%)

40 (0.9%)

42 (0.9%)


47 (1.0%)

52 (1.0%)

46 (1.0%)

50 (1.0%)


344 (7.1%)

392 (7.6%)

316 (6.9%)

362 (7.4%)


Summary table of statistics of Victorian flora 1: Origin status


It is interesting to note that in the first edition of the Census (Forbes et al, 1984) in which there were only two categories (‘native' and ‘naturalised'), 878 taxa were listed as naturalised. In this edition the combined figure for naturalised, incipiently naturalised and dual status taxa is 1546.



Rare and threatened Victorian vascular plants


The status accorded a taxon can have profound implications for its conservation status. Recognition of a taxon as a native, especially if it has a restricted distribution or is known from only a few populations, may result in the expenditure of considerable resources to try and ensure the survival of populations. Conversely, classification as an introduced species may result in conscious efforts being made to eradicate populations. An endeavour has been made in this edition of the Census to reflect the conservation status of the taxa thought to be rare or threatened. Many of these decisions are based on discussions with colleagues and other specialists acknowledged below.


Categories of rare or threatened Plants in Victoria have been adapted from Gullan et al. (1990), Briggs and Leigh (1996) and Department of Sustainability and Environment (2005). National conservation status designations largely follow those of Briggs and Leigh (1996), but for taxa that have been recognised since their work, or in cases where more recent information warrants revision of the threat category, risk codes have been provided that reflect the conservation status based on current knowledge.


There has not been a detailed assessment for all Victorian taxa employing the criteria of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) - the internationally accepted framework for classifying threatened species. This work is ongoing, but until the detailed information required to employ the IUCN criteria is available, the system based on that of Briggs & Leigh is retained here.


The categories are:


X - Presumed extinct in Australia: taxa that either have not been found in recent years despite thorough searching, or have not been collected for at least 50 years and were known only from now intensively settled areas.


x - Presumed extinct in Victoria: no post-1950 records from Victoria, in spite of field searches specifically for the plant, or intensive field searches (since 1950) at all known sites have failed to record the plant.


E - Endangered in Australia: at serious risk of disappearing from the wild state within one or two decades if present land use and other causal factors continue to operate.


e - Endangered in Victoria: rare or at risk of disappearing from the wild state if present land use and other causal factors continue to operate.


V - Vulnerable in Australia: not presently Endangered but at risk of disappearing from the wild over a longer period (20 to 50 years) through continued depletion, or which largely occur on sites likely to experience changes in land use that would threaten the survival of the taxon in the wild.




v - Vulnerable in Victoria; rare, not presently Endangered but likely to become so soon due to continued depletion; occurring mainly on sites likely to experience changes in land use that would threaten the survival of the plant in the wild; or taxa where total populations are so low that recovery from a local natural disturbance such as drought, landslip or fire is doubtful.


R - Rare in Australia: rare but overall not currently considered Endangered or Vulnerable. Such species may be represented by a relatively large population in a very restricted area or by smaller populations spread over a wider range, or by some intermediate combination of distribution pattern.


r - Rare in Victoria but not considered otherwise threatened. This category does not imply that the plants are substantially threatened, but merely that there are relatively few known populations.


K - Poorly known in Australia: Suspected, but not definitely known, to belong to one of the categories X, E, V or R. At present accurate field distribution information is inadequate. This category applies only to taxa considered rare or threatened throughout Australia.


k - Poorly known and suspected, but not definitely known to belong to one of the categories x, e, v or r within Victoria. At present accurate field distribution information is inadequate. In our experience, most taxa originally included in this category have ultimately been reassigned into the e or v categories when sufficient information about their status in the wild has been accumulated.




Number of species (% of taxa)

Number of taxa (% of taxa)


13 (0.3%)

13 (0.4%)


44 (0.9%)

45 (0.9%)


102 (2.1%)

118 (2.7%)


257 (4.9%)

280 (5.8%)


137 (2.8%)

162 (3.1%)


447 (9.2%)

494 (9.5%)


214 (4.4%)

262 (5.0%)


704 (14.6%)

804 (15.5%)


45 (0.9%)

53 (1.0%)


168 (3.5%)

228 (4.3%)


88 (1.7%)

90 (1.8%)


Summary table of statistics of Victorian flora 2: Rare, threatened and extinct taxa



Distribution data for many of the taxa may be obtained from Beauglehole (1980) and Walsh and Entwisle (1994; 1996, 1999), Viridans (2005) or the website of the Australian Virtual Herbarium (


Voucher specimens of taxa not recorded in the Census, with accompanying distribution data and notes will be welcomed by the National Herbarium of Victoria. Voucher specimens provide a permanent record validating the identity and occurrence of a plant at a particular locality and time. Vouchers are also a verifiable and invaluable source of information such as distribution, ecological preferences, and associated species.


A list of useful URL addresses that refer to issues of plant nomenclature (detailed synonymy, protologue information, etc.) follow the list of references.






APG (1998) An ordinal classification for the families of flowering plants. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: 531-553.


APG (2003) An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141: 399-436.


Barker, W.R. (2005) Standardising informal names in Australian publications. Australian Systematic Botany Society Newsletter 122 (March 2005)


Bean, A.R. (2007) A new system for determining which plant species are indigenous in Australia. Austral. Syst. Bot. 20:1-43


Beauglehole, A.C. (1980) Victorian Vascular Plant Checklists. (Western Victorian Field Naturalists Clubs Association, Portland.)


Bridson, G.H.R. (2004) BPH-2: Periodicals with botanical content, Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh.


Briggs, J.D. and Leigh, J.H. (1996) Rare or Threatened Australian Plants. (CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.)


Brummitt, R.K. and Powell, C.E. (1992) Authors of Plant Names. (Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.)


Cronquist, A.J. (1981) An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants. (Columbia University Press, New York.)


Dean, E. (2002) Upcoming changes in flowering plant family names; those pesky taxonomists are at it again! Fremontia 30: 3-12.


Endress, M.E. & Bruyns, P.V. (2000) A revised classification of the Apocynaceae s.l. Botanical Review 66: 1-56.


Ewart, A.J. (1931) Flora of Victoria. (Government Printer, Melbourne.)


Forbes, S.J., Gullan, P.K., Kilgour, R.A. & Powell, M.A. (1984) A Census of the Vascular Plants of Victoria. (Royal Botanic Gardens & National Herbarium).


Gullan, P.K., Cheal, D.C. and Walsh, N.G. (1990) Rare or Threatened Plants in Victoria. (Department of Conservation and Environment, East Melbourne.)


Hill, M. & Preston, C. (2002) New atlas genera in their natural orders. Botanical Society of the British Isles News 91: 18-23.


Hosking, J.R., Conn, B.J. & Lepschi, B.J. (2003) Plant species first recognised as naturalised in New South Wales over the period 2000-2001. Cunninghamia 8: 175-187.


Kloot, P.M. (1987) The Naturalised Flora of South Australia 1. The Documentation of its Development. Journal of the Adelaide Botanic Garden 10: 81-90.


Kron, K.A., Judd, W.S., Stevens, P.F., Crayn, D.M., Anderberg, A.A,, Gadek, P.A., Quinn, C.J. & Luteyn, J.L. (2002) Phylogenetic Classification of Ericaceae: Molecular and Morphological Evidence. Botanical Review 68: 335-424.


Lawrence, G.M.H., Buckheim, A.F.G., Daniels, G.S. & Dolezal, H. (1968) Botanico-Periodicum-Huntianum. (Hunt Botanical Library, Pittsburgh.)


McNeill, J., Barrie, F. R., Burdet, H. M., Demoulin, V., Hawksworth, D. L., Marhold, K., Nicolson, D. H., Prado, J., Silva, P. C., Skog, J. E., Wiersema, J. H. & Turland, N. J. (eds.) (2006) International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Vienna Code). (Gantner Verlag, Ruggell, Liechtenstein.)


Mueller, F.J.H. (1853) Flora of South Australia, displayed in its fundamental features and comparatively. Hooker's Journal of Botany and Kew Gardens Miscellany 5: 65-72.


Mueller, F.J.H. (1862) The plants indigenous to the Colony of Victoria. Vol. I, (Government Printer, Melbourne.)


O'Leary, M.C. (2007) Review of Acacia retinodes and closely related species, A. uncifolia & A. provincialis (Leguminoeae: Mimosoideae: sect. Phyllodineae). J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 21:95-109


Olmstead, R.G., de Pamphilis, C.W., Wolfe, A.D., Young, N.D., Elisons, W.J. & Reeves, P.A. (2001) Disintegration of the Scrophulariaceae. American J. of Botany 88: 348-361.


Olmstead, R.G. (2002) Whatever happened to the Scrophulariaceae? Fremontia 30: 13-22.


Pysek, P., Richardson, D.M., Rejmanek, M., Webster, G.L., Williamson, M. & Kirschner, J. (2004) Alien plants in checklists and floras: towards better communication between taxonomists and ecologists. Taxon 53: 131-143.


Richardson, D.M., Pysek, P., Rejmanek, M., Barbour, M.G., Panetta, F.D., & West, C.J. (2000) Naturalisation and invasion of alien plants: concepts and definitions. Diversity and Distribution 6:93-107


Ross, J.H. & Walsh, N.G. (2003) A Census of the Vascular Plants of Victoria 7th edn. (Royal Botanic Gardens, Melbourne.)


Stafleu, F.A. and Cowan, R.S. (1976-1988) Taxonomic Literature 2nd edn. (Bonn, Scheltema & Holkema, Utrecht.)


Stafleu, F.A. and Mennega, E.A. (1992-) Taxonomic Literature Supplement. (Koeltz Scientific Books, Konigstein.)


Stevens, P.F. (2002) Angiosperm Phylogeny Website, Version 3, May 2002.


Tutin, T.G., Heywood, V.H., Burges, N.A., Valentine, D.H., Walters, S.M. & Webb, D.A. (eds) (1964) Flora Europaea, Vol. 1. (Cambridge University Press.)

Viridans Pty Ltd (2005) Wild Plants of Victoria, an interactive atlas and photographic guide to plants of Victoria CD-ROM.

Walsh, N.G. and Entwisle, T.J. (eds) (1994) Flora of Victoria, Vol. 2. (Inkata Press, Melbourne.)


Walsh, N.G. and Entwisle, T.J. (eds) (1996) Flora of Victoria, Vol. 3. (Inkata Press, Melbourne.)


Walsh, N.G.and Entwisle, T.J. (eds) 1999) Flora of Victoria, Vol. 4. (Inkata Press, Melbourne.)


Willis, J. H. (1970, 1973) A Handbook to Plants in Victoria, Vol. 1 (2nd edn), Vol. 2. (Melbourne University Press.)



Useful websites for further information


Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG)


Australian Plant Census (APC)


Australian Plant Names Index (APNI)


Australia's Virtual Herbarium (AVH)


Electronic Flora of South Australia


Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) Taxonomy for Plants


International Plant Names Index (IPNI)


Kew bibliographic databases


Taxonomic Literature (TL2)




Web Guide to the eucalypts (Eucalink)



Websites for Australian Herbaria and State/Territory Censuses


New South Wales


Northern Territory




South Australia






Western Australia





As with previous editions, this edition is a compilation based largely on the work of others. All of the staff of the National Herbarium of Victoria have contributed in some way and their assistance is gratefully acknowledged. Our colleague Peter Neish has been of particular help in maintaining the database on which this census is founded and in introducing further programming refinements. A range of experts have provided information on their specialty plant groups: Tony Bean, Queensland Herbarium (Carthamus, Callitriche); David Cameron, Department of Sustainability and Environment (conservation status assessments); Geoff Carr, Ecology Australia (naturalised plants, Dianella); John Hosking, Department of Primary Industries, New South Wales (naturalised plants, nomenclature); Jeff Jeanes, National Herbarium of Victoria (Orchidaceae); John Reid and Dan Murphy, National Herbarium of Victoria (naturalised Acacia); Dean Rouse, Australian National University, Canberra (Prasophyllum); Kevin Rule, National Herbarium of Victoria (Eucalyptus); Ian Thompson, University of Melbourne (Asteraceae, Rubiaceae); Hellmut Toelken, State Herbarium of South Australia (Kunzea, Hibbertia).


The fraternity of practising botanical taxonomists in Australia is not large, and we draw on the personal communications from many within-state and interstate experts to clarify many matters retaining to plant nomenclature. We are grateful to all of those not listed above, who have responded to our day-to-day requests for information. The application of names and or the determination of alien taxa can sometimes only be definitively known when specimens are sent to relevant experts overseas. We are grateful to the following botanists who have assisted us: Clare Archer (South Africa, Gladiolus), Ching-I Peng (Taiwan, Ludwigia), Richard Lansdown (UK, Callitriche), Ted Oliver (South Africa, Erica) and Peter Zika (USA, Carex).


We are grateful to Enid Mayfield who prepared the cover illustration. The illustration of Commersonia rossii (Sterculiaceae) breaks the tradition of representing an endemic Victorian plant on the cover of the Census, but we believe it appropriate to recognise the outstanding contribution to botany in this State of our friend and former colleague, Jim Ross after whom this plant was name.