Tim Entwisle

Tim Entwisle

Director and Chief Executive, Royal Botanic Gardens

Professor Tim Entwisle is a highly respected scientist, scientific communicator and botanic gardens director. He took up the role of Director and Chief Executive of Royal Botanic Gardens in March 2013, following two years in a senior role at Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, and eight years as Executive Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust in Sydney. Tim is an Honorary Professorial Fellow in the School of Botany at The University of Melbourne and a Visiting Professor in the School of Biological and Biomedical Science, Durham University. He is an expert in freshwater algae (a genus, family and order of algae were named after him last year) but has a broad interest in all plants and related life forms (e.g. he edited and wrote for the 4-volume Flora of Victoria). Tim blogs, tweets, and looks for any opportunity to promote science, plants and gardens. Tim has been a regular contributor to ABC radio and its website, and a frequent guest on Australian radio and television – over summer 2014/15 he hosted RN’s first gardening show, Talking Plants. He has written for a variety of science, nature and garden magazines and maintains an active social media profile (including his popular ‘Talkingplants’ blog).

Learn more about bushland biodiversity in Tim's video - Biodiversity and the Seasons (YouTube — 3:02)

  • Refereed journal articles
  • Theses
  • Other

Entwisle, T.J., and Kraft, G.T. (1984). Survey of freshwater red algae (Rhodophyta) of
south-eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 35, 213–59.
Entwisle, T.J. (1987). An evaluation of taxonomic characters in the subsection Sessiles,
section Corniculatae, of Vaucheria (Vaucheriaceae, Chrysophyta). Phycologia 26, 297–321.
Entwisle, T.J. (1988a). A monograph of Vaucheria (Vaucheriaceae, Chrysophyta) in southeastern
mainland Australia. Australian Systematic Botany 1, 1–77.
Entwisle, T.J. (1988b). An evaluation of taxonomic characters in the Vaucheria prona
complex (Vaucheriaceae, Chrysophyta). Phycologia 27, 183–200.
Entwisle, T.J. (1989a). The the
Cladophora-Stigeoclonium association in two urban creeks of Melbourne. Australian Journal
of Marine and Freshwater Research 40, 471–89.
Entwisle, T.J. (1989b). Macroalgae in the Yarra River basin: flora and distribution.
Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria 101, 1–76.
Entwisle, T.J. (1989c). Psilosiphon scoparium gen. et sp. nov. (Lemaneaceae, Rhodophyta):
A new red alga from eastern Australian streams. Phycologia 28, 469–75.
Entwisle, T.J. (1990a). Macroalgae in the Upper Yarra and Watts River basins: phenology
and distribution. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 41, 505–22.
Entwisle, T.J. (1990b). The lean legacy of freshwater phycology in Victoria. In ‘History of
Systematic Botany in Australasia.’ (Ed. P.S. Short) pp. 239–46 (Australian Systematic Botany
Society Inc.: Melbourne.)
Entwisle, T.J., and Andersen, B.A. (1990). A re-examination of Tetrasporopsis
(Chrysophyceae) and a description of Dermatochrysis gen. nov. (Chrysophyta): a
monostromatic alga lacking cell walls. Phycologia 29, 263–74.
Necchi, O. jr, and Entwisle, T.J. (1990). A reappraisal of the generic and subgeneric
classification in the Batrachospermaceae (Rhodophyta). Phycologia 29, 478–88.
Sullivan, C., Entwisle, T.J., and Rowan, K.S. (1990). The identification of chlorophyll c in the
Tribophyceae using spectrophotofluorimetry. Phycologia 29, 285–91.
Entwisle, T.J. (1992). The setaceous species of Batrachospermum (Rhodophyta): a reevaluation
of B. atrum (Hudson) Harvey and B. puiggarianum Grunow including the
description of B. diatyches sp. nov. from Tasmania, Australia. Muelleria 7, 425–45.
Entwisle, T.J., and Necchi O. jr. (1992). Phylogenetic systematics of the freshwater red algal
order Batrachospermales. Japanese Journal of Phycology (Sôrui) 40, 1–13.
Entwisle, T.J., and Price, I.R. (1992). New records of two potential weed species of
freshwater macroalgae from Queensland. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland
10, 57–64.
Entwisle, T.J. (1993). The discovery of Batrachospermalean taxa (Rhodophyta) in Australia
and New Zealand. Muelleria 8, 5–16.
Entwisle, T.J. (Ed.) (1994a). Aquatic Cryptogams of Australia: a Guide to the Macroalgae,
Larger Fungi, Lichens and Bryophytes of Australian Inland Waters. Australian Society for
Limnology, Special Publication No. 10. [Including by T.J. Entwisle the chapter on
Entwisle, T.J. (1994b). Census of the vascular plants of Victoria: update bulletin no. 4.3.
Victorian Naturalist 111: 154–9.
Entwisle, T.J., Albrecht, D.E., and Walsh, N.G. (1994). Ground flora—diversity and
associations in Victoria. Victorian Naturalist 111, 80–6.
Raleigh, R., Ladiges, P.Y., Entwisle, T.J., and Drinnan, A. (1994). Morphometric studies of
the genus Tasmannia (Winteraceae) in Victoria, Australia. Muelleria 8, 235–56.
Walsh, N.G., and Entwisle, T.J. (Eds) (1994). ‘Flora of Victoria, vol. 2.’ (Inkata Press:
Melbourne.) [Including accounts by T.J. Entwisle of Psilophyta, Lycopodiophyta,
Polypodiophyta, Coniferophyta, Orchidaceae (most genera).]
Day, S., Wickham, R., Entwisle, T.J., and Tyler, P.A. (1995). Bibliographic Checklist of Nonmarine
Algae in Australia. Australian Biological Resources Study, Flora of Australia
Supplementary Series No. 4.
Entwisle, T.J. (1995). Batrachospermum antipodites sp. nov. (Batrachospermaceae): a
widespread freshwater red alga in eastern Australia and New Zealand. Muelleria 8, 291–8.
Entwisle, T.J. (1995). Census of the vascular plants of Victoria: update bulletin no. 4.4.
Victorian Naturalist 112, 139–43.
Entwisle, T.J. (1995). Victoria's Wonderful Flora. In ‘The Brilliance of Australian Plants:
Conference Papers from the 18th Biennial Conference of the Association of Societies for
Growing Australian Plants.’ (Ed. SGAP Victoria) pp. 64–70 (Society for Growing Australian
Plants, Victoria).
Vis, M.L., Sheath, R.G., and Entwisle, T.J. (1995). Morphometric analysis of
Batrachospermum section Batrachospermum (Batrachospermales, Rhodophyta) type
specimens. European Journal of Phycology 30, 35–55.
Entwisle, T.J. (1996). Heinrichs Skuja. In ‘Prominent Phycologists of the 20th Century.’ (Ed.
by D. Garbary and M.J. Wynne) pp. 35–41 (Phycological Society of America: Hantsport,
Nova Scotia.)
Sheath, R.G., Müller, K.M., Whittick, A., and Entwisle, T.J. (1996). A re-examination of the
morphology and reproduction of Nothocladus lindaueri (Batrachospermales, Rhodophyta).
Phycological Research 44, 1–10.
Sheath, R.G., Mueller, K.M., Vis, M.L., and Entwisle, T.J. (1996). A re-examination of the
morphology, ultrastructure and classification of genera in the Lemaneaceae
(Batrachospermales, Rhodophyta). Phycological Research 44, 233–46.
Walsh, N.G., and Entwisle, T.J. (Eds) (1996). ‘Flora of Victoria, vol. 3.’ (Inkata Press:
Melbourne.) [Including accounts by T.J. Entwisle of Brassicaceae, Cabombaceae,
Casuarinaceae, Ceratophyllaceae, Fagaceae, Frankeniaceae, Gyrostemonaceae, Mimosaceae
(co-author), Moraceae, Nothofagaceae, Passifloraceae, Resedaceae, Thymelaeaceae,
Ulmaceae, Urticaceae, Violaceae, Winteraceae (co-author).]
Entwisle, T.J., and Foard, H.J. (1997). Batrachospermum (Batrachospermales,
Rhodophyta) in Australia and New Zealand: New Taxa and Emended Circumscriptions in
sections Aristata, Batrachospermum, Turfosa and Virescentia. Australian Systematic Botany
10, 331–80.
Entwisle, T.J., Sonneman, J., and Lewis, S.H. (1997). ‘Freshwater Algae in Australia: a
Guide to Conspicuous Genera.’ (Sainty & Associates: Potts Point.)
Entwisle, T.J. (1998). Batrachospermaceae (Rhodophyta) in France: 200 years of study.
Cryptogamie, Algologie 19, 149–59.
Entwisle, T.J. (1998). Preface [to Beyond the Floras]. Australian Systematic Botany 11, iii–
Entwisle, T.J., and Foard, H.J. (1998). Batrachospermum latericium sp. nov.
(Batrachospermales, Rhodophyta) from Tasmania, Australia, with new observations on B.
atrum and a discussion of their relationships. Muelleria 11, 27–40.
Entwisle, T.J., and Huisman, J.M. (1998). Algal systematics in Australia. Australian
Systematic Botany 11, 203–14.
Huisman, J.M., Cowan, R.A., and Entwisle, T.J. (1998). Biodiversity of Australian marine
macroalgae—a progress report. Botanica Marina 41, 89–93.
Lewis, S.H., and Entwisle, T.J. (1998). Zygnemataceae (Chlorophyta) in Australia: a
reassessment of records and a key to accepted taxa. Muelleria 11, 51–93.
Vis, M.L., Saunders, G.W., Sheath, R.G., Dunse, K., and Entwisle, T.J. (1998). Phylogeny of
the Batrachospermales (Rhodophyta) inferred from rbcL and 18S ribosomal RNA gene
sequences. Journal of Phycology 34, 341–50.
Entwisle, T.J., and Foard, H.J. (1999a). Freshwater Rhodophyta in Australia: Ptilothamnion
richardsii (Ceramiales) and Thorea conturba sp. nov. (Rhodophyta). Phycologia 38, 47–53.
Entwisle, T.J., and Foard, H.J. (1999b). Sirodotia (Batrachospermales, Rhodophyta) in
Australia and New Zealand. Australian Systematic Botany 12, 605–613.
Entwisle, T.J., and Foard, H.J. (1999c). Batrachospermum (Batrachospermales,
Rhodophyta) in Australia and New Zealand: sections Contorta and Hybrida. Australian
Systematic Botany 12, 615–633.
Walsh, N.G., and Entwisle, T.J. (Eds) (1999). ‘Flora of Victoria, vol. 4.’ (Inkata Press:
Entwisle, T.J., Vis, M.L., and Foard, H.J. (2000). Biogeography of Psilosiphon
(Batrachospermales, Rhodophyta) in Australia and New Zealand. Cryptogamie Algologie 21,
Lewis, S.H., and Entwisle, T.J. (2000). Spirogyra cardinia (Zygnemataceae, Chlorophyta), a
new species of freshwater algae from Victoria. Muelleria 15, 99–102.
Vis, M.L., and Entwisle, T.J. (2000). Insights into Batrachospermales (Rhodophyta)
phylogeny from rbcL sequence data of Australian taxa. Journal of Phycology 36, 1175–
Entwisle, T.J. & Skinner, S. (2001). Non-marine algae of Australia: 4. Floristic survey of
some colonial green macroalgae (Chlorophyta). Telopea 9: 725-739.
 Skinner, S. & Entwisle, T.J. (2001a) Non-marine algae of Australia: 1. Survey of colonial
gelatinous blue-green macroalgae (Cyanobacteria). Telopea 9: 573-599.
Skinner, S. & Entwisle, T.J. (2001b) Non-marine algae of Australia: 2. Some conspicuous
tuft-forming Cyanobacteria. Telopea 9: 685-712.
Skinner, S. & Entwisle, T.J. (2001c) Non-marine algae of Australia: 3. Audouinella and
Balbiania (Rhodophyta). Telopea 9: 713-723.
Downes, B.J., Entwisle, T.J., and Reich, P. (2003) Effects of flow regulation on disturbance
frequencies and in-channel bryophytes and macroalgae in some upland streams. River
Research and Applications 19: 27-42.
Skinner, S. and Entwisle, T.J. (2004). Non-marine algae of Australia: 5. Macroscopic
Chaetophoraceae (Chaetophorales, Chlorophyta). Telopea 10: 613–633.
Entwisle, T.J., Vis, M.L., and Macpherson, H. (2004). Batrachospermum pseudogelatinosum
(Batrachospermales, Rhodophyta), a polyecious paraspecies from Australia and New
Zealand. Australian Systematic Botany 17: 17–28.
Skinner, S. and Entwisle, T.J. (2004). Non-marine algae of Australia: 6. Cladophoraceae
(Chlorophyta). Telopea 10: 731–748.
Entwisle, T.J. and Weston, P.H. (2005). Majority Rules, when systematists disagree.
Australian Systematic Botany 18: 1–6.
Skinner, S. and Entwisle, T.J. (2005). A colligate Spirogyra (Zygnemataceae,
Zygnematophyceae) in Australia. Telopea 11: 87–89.
Weston, P.H., Perkins, A.J., and Entwisle, T.J. (2005). More than symbioses: orchid ecology,
with examples from the Sydney region. Cunninghamia 9: 1–15.
Vis, M.L., Entwisle, T.J., West, J.A. and Ott, F.D. (2006). Ptilothamnion richardsii
(Rhodophyta) is a Chantransia stage of Batrachospermum. European Journal of Phycology
41: 125–130.
Skinner, S. & Entwisle, T.J. (2006). New taxa and combinations for Oedogonium Link and
Bulbochaete C.Agardh (Oedogoniales, Chlorophyceae) in Australia. Telopea 11, 171-193.
Entwisle, T.J. (2006). The true story of Sirodotia goebelii. Australian Systematic Botany
Society Newsletter 128: 13-15.
Huisman, J.M. & Entwisle, T.J. (2007). A guide to the identification of algae, A bibliography
of Australian algae, and Glossary. Algae of Australia: Introduction 129-157, 158-197, 623-
Entwisle, T.J. (2007). Glaucocystophyta and Xanthophyceae. Algae of Australia: Introduction
207-208, 255-256.
Skinner, S. & Entwisle, T.J. (2007). Chlorophyta: Chlorophyceae, Ulvophyceae and
Dasycladophyceae. Algae of Australia: Introduction 334-337, 338-340, 349-350.
Skinner, S., Millar, A.J. & Entwisle, T.J. (2007). Chlorophyta: Cladophorophyceae. Algae of
Australia: Introduction 341-344.
Entwisle, T.J. (2007). Biogeography of freshwater macroalgae. Algae of Australia:
Introduction 566-579.
Entwisle, T.J., Skinner, S., Lewis, S.H. & Foard, H.J. (2007). Algae of Australia:
Batrachospermales, Thoreales, Oedogoniales and Zygnemaceae. (ABRS: Canberra; CSIRO
Publishing: Melbourne.)
Skinner, S., FitzSimmons, N. & Entwisle, T.J. (2008). The moss-back alga
(Cladophorophyceae, Chlorophyta) on two species of freshwater turtles in the Kimberleys.
Telopea 12: 279-284.
 Sherwood, A.R., Vis, M.L., Entwisle, T.J., Necchi, O. Jr. & Presting, G.G. (2008) Contrasting
intra versus interspecies DNA sequence variation for representatives of the
Batrachospermales (Rhodophyta): insights from a DNA barcoding approach. Phycological
Research 56: 269–279.
Entwisle, T.J., Vis, M.L., Chaisson, W., Necchi O. Jr & Sherwood, A. (2009). Systematics of
the Batrachospermales (Rhodophyta) – a synthesis. Journal of Phycology 45: 704–715.
Vis, M.L., Feng, J., Chiasson, W.B., Xie, S.-L., Stancheva, R., Entwisle, T.J., Chou J.-Y. &
Wang, W.-L. (2010). Investigation of the molecular and morphological variability in
Batrachospermum arcuatum (Batrachospermales, Rhodophyta) from geographically distant
locations. Phycologia 49: 545–553.
 Vis, M.L., Necchi Jr, O., Chiasson, W.B & Entwisle, T.J. (2012). Molecular phylogeny of the
genus Kumanoa (Batrachospermales, Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 48: 750–758.
Lam, D.W., Entwisle, T.J., Eloranta, P., Kwandrans, J. & Vis, M.L. (2012) Circumscription of
species in the genus Sirodotia (Batrachospermales, Rhodophyta) based on molecular and
morphological data. European Journal of Phycology 47: 42-50.


Reports and theses

Entwisle, T.J. (1981). A Preliminary Investigation into the Freshwater Red Algae of Southeastern
Australia. Honours Thesis, University of Melbourne.
Entwisle, T.J. (1986). A Monograph of Vaucheria (Vaucheriaceae, Chrysophyta) in South-eastern
Australia. PhD Thesis, La Trobe University.
Entwisle, T.J. (1989a). Pilot Study to Assess Aquatic Plant Communities in Selected Metropolitan
Streams, Final Report. Consultant Report No. 4142 for the Melbourne & Metropolitan
Board of Works.
Entwisle, T.J. (1989b). An Introduction to Macroalgal Monitoring in Australian Streams.
[Unpublished ms. circulated in November 1989].
Entwisle, T.J. (1997). Algae. In ‘Overview of the Conservation of Non-marine Lichens,
Bryophytes, Algae and Fungi in Australia.’ (by Scott, G.A.M. et al.) Wildlife
Australia/Environment Australia, Canberra.
Skinner, S., Eldridge, D. and Entwisle, T.J. (2003). Survey Guidelines for Non-vascular Plants.
Royal Botanic Gardens & Domain Trust; NSW Dept of Sustainable Natural Resources,

Major electronic publications

Entwisle, T.J., and Nairn, L. (1 December 1999). Freshwater Algae - Census of Freshwater Algae
in Australia (version 1.0).
Entwisle, T.J., and Yee, N. (25 August 2003). AFA – Australian Freshwater Algae (version 1.0),
including ALGKEY (interactive identification key to genera) and ALGPIC (pictorial key to

Selected presentations (since 1990)

Kew’s Breathing Plant Programme, to various staff and diploma students at Kew, 2011-2012.
Foraging for Freshwater Red Algae in Australia , British Phycological Society Winter Meeting,
Newcastle, January 2011
Fresh Air – How the Breathing Planet Programme breathes new life into Royal Botanic Gardens
Kew, and the world, Global Strategy for Plant Conservation meeting, St Louis, USA, June
“Dr Entwhistle is a Murderer”: or how I replaced 10 trees (and lived to tell the tale), New
Zealand Horticultural ITO Young Horticulturalist of the Year Awards, Auckland, October
World’s Best Botanic Garden, various after dinner engagements including Camellia Society
Annual Conference and Australia Club, 2008.
E Algis Omnia (From Algae, Everything), University of Sydney, September 2008.
Are plants immortal?, various after dinner engagements, including Australian Skeptics, Botanic
Gardens Australia and New Zealand in Hamilton, 2007-08.
Naming Species. Science Festival Forum – Naming Australia’s Biodiversity – it matters!,
Canberra, August 2007
Case Study: Botanic Gardens Trust and Managing Botanic Gardens: More than plants, more
than labels, Guest Speaker, The Implementation of the GSPC Target VIII: Establishment
and Management of New Botanic Gardens in Indonesia, Bogor, Indonesia, 2007.
Biological Collections: Use them or lose them. Keynote Speaker, Use it or lose it: invertebrate
diversity in landscape management, Canberra, December 2005; also to various other
audiences, including 3rd Global Botanic Gardens Congress in Wuhan, China, 2007.
Towards 2016. Macleay Lecture, Linnean Society of New South Wales, 2005.
Communicating Science: the Medium, the Message or the Manipulation? Botanic Gardens of
Australia and New Zealand Conference, Geelong, October 2003.
Systematics for Conservation. Science for Plant Conservation – An International Conference for
Botanic Gardens, Dublin, Ireland, July 2002.
Big Green Science: the Wollemi Pine and other Award Nominations. ‘CONASTA (Conference of
Australian Science Teachers Association) 2001; Camellia Research Society of NSW 2002.
Freshwater Algae in Australia: 300 years on. Macquarie University 1999; Dampier 300
(Australian Systematic Botany Society), Perth, December 1999.
Freshwater Red Algae: a Timely Perspective on Southern Hemisphere Biogeography.
International Botanical Congress, St Louis, USA, August 1999
Phycology and Friends: Who Needs Them? University of New South Wales 1999; Botanic
Gardens Trust 1999.
New Taxonomic and Phylogenetic Characters in Batrachospermum from Australasia. VIth
International Phycological Congress, Leiden, 1997.
Thirty Degrees of Latitude and Temperature: Collecting Algae in Northern Territory and
Tasmania. Australian Systematic Botany Society, Melbourne Chapter, 1997.
Freshwater Algae in Australia: the Colour Guide. Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne, 1997.
Identifying Victorian Ferns. Workshop for the Field Naturalist Club of Victoria, 1997.
Conservation Priorities for Thallophytes (Algae and Fungi). Setting Conservation Priorities
Workshop, organized by Centre for Conservation Genetics, 1996.
Victoria's Wonderful Flora. 18th Biennial Conference of the Association of Societies for Growing
Australian Plants, ‘The Brilliance of Australian Plants’, Ballarat, 1995.
Orchids of the Melbourne Region. Society for Growing Australian Plants, Melbourne Group, 1995
A Scientist’s Perspective on Biodiversity Conservation. Localinks Conference, 1995.
Psilosiphon: an Intriguing Freshwater Red Alga from Australia. Australian Systematic Botany
Society Meeting, 1994.
Algae in Australian streams and the French connection. Friends of the Royal Botanic Gardens
Melbourne, 1993.
Orchids of Victoria. Australian Native Orchid Society (Victoria), June 1993; Geelong Australian
Native Orchid Society, 1994.
Freshwater Filamentous Algae Under the Microscope. Microscopy Group, Field Naturalist Club of
Victoria, 1993
Endemism and Rareness of Freshwater Red Algae in Australia and New Zealand. Plenary
lecture, Xth Australian Society for Phycology and Aquatic Botany Conference, 1992.
The Macroalgae of Inland Australia . Flora of Australia workshop, Royal Botanic Gardens
Melbourne, 1991.
The Discovery of Freshwater Red-algal species in Australia and New Zealand: From Imperialism
to Endemism and Back Again. Department of Botany, La Trobe University, 1992.
Ground Flora Diversity and Associations. Ground Flora Restoration and Management Workshop,
1991; Melbourne Zoological Gardens, 1991.
Conservation Review of Non-marine Algae in Australia. (Invited talk) Workshop on the
Conservation of Non-vascular Plants, 1991.
Freshwater Macroalgae in Australia: Out of the Unknown. Australian Society for Phycology and
Aquatic Botany, 1991; School of Botany, The University of Melbourne, 1991.
Rare and Endangered Ferns of Victoria. Fern Society of Victoria, 1991.
Selected lectures
Conservation of Plants: from the Wollemi Pine to Freshwater Algae. Lecture to Biodiversity
Course at Macquarie University, 1999.
Lichens. Two lectures for 2nd year botany unit at The University of Melbourne, 1992–
Ecology and Taxonomy of Australian Macroalgae. Lecture for 2nd year botany unit at The
University of Melbourne, 1992–
Plant Names. Lecture to 2nd year agriculture students, The University of Melbourne, 1992.
Bryophytes. Lectures and practical course for 2nd year botany unit at The University of
Melbourne (3 lectures and 2 practicals), 1990.
National Herbarium of Victoria. Burnley Diploma Course at National Herbarium of Victoria, every
6 months, 1990–93. Box Hill TAFE Diploma Course, every 12 months, 1991–93.
Ecological and Taxonomic studies on Stream Macroalgae. Guest Lecture in 3rd year Benthic
Algae Course, The University of Melbourne, 1989.
Freshwater Macroalgae. Guest Lecture in 2nd Year Benthic Algae Course, The University of
Melbourne, 1987, 1988.